area of Strays established 1832
April 6 - The Black Hawk War begins The Black Hawk War was fought in 1832 in the Midwestern United States. The war was named for Black Hawk, the leader of a band of Sauk and Fox Indians, who fought against the United States Army and militia from Illinois and the Michigan Territory (present-day Wisconsin) for possession of lands in the area.
July 10 - President Andrew Jackson vetoes a bill that would re-charter the Second Bank of the United States.
The Second Bank of the United States helped create a robust economy with strong interregional connections and provided a convenient way for the government to handle its affairs. Enemies of all banks and modernization generally, combined with some jealous bankers, urged Andrew Jackson to destroy it as a monstrous threat to American liberties. The head of the Second Bank was Nicholas Biddle. The bank was created after James Madison and Albert Gallatin found the government unable to finance the War of 1812 after the closing of the First Bank of the United States in 1811.
After the war an economic boom created a need for a strong bank. American agricultural products were in demand in Europe, due to the devastation of the Napoleonic Wars. The Bank aided this boom through its uncontrolled lending. At the time, land sales for speculation were being encouraged. This lending allowed almost anyone to borrow money and speculate in land, sometimes doubling or even tripling the prices of land. The land sales for 1819, alone, totaled some 55 million acres (220,000 km²). With such a boom, hardly anyone noticed the widespread fraud occurring at the Bank.
July 24 - Benjamin Bonneville leads the first wagon train across the Rocky Mountains by using Wyoming's South Pass.
Benjamin Louis Eulalie de Bonneville (April 14, 1796 – June 12, 1878) was a French-born officer in the United States Army, fur trapper, and explorer in the American West. He is noted for his expeditions to the Oregon Country and the Great Basin, and in particular for blazing portions of the Oregon Trail.
The expedition that would become the most famous accomplishment of his life began in May 1832, when he left Missouri with 110 men, including Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth. The voyage was financed by John Jacob Astor, a rival of the Hudson's Bay Company. The expedition proceeded up to the Platte River and across present-day Wyoming. They reached the Green River in August and built a winter fort, which they named Fort Bonneville.
In the spring of 1833 he explored along the Snake River in present-day Idaho. He also sent a party of men under Joseph Walker to explore the Great Salt Lake and to find an overland route to California. Walker discovered a route along the Humboldt River across present-day Nevada, as well as Walker Pass across the Sierra Nevada, a path that later became known as the California Trail, the primary route for the emigrants to the gold fields during the California Gold Rush. Much speculation has surrounded Bonneville's motivations for sending Walker to California. In particular some historians have speculated that Bonneville was attempting to lay the groundwork for an eventual invasion of California, then part of Mexico, by the United States Army.
John McLoughlin, the director of the Columbia operations of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River, heard of Bonneville's mission and forbade his traders from doing business with Bonneville and his men. Bonneville reported that many of the Native Americans he encountered in the Snake River were also reluctant to displease the Hudson's Bay Company by trading with the Americans.
In the summer of 1833 Bonneville ventured into the Wind River Range in present-day Wyoming to trade with the Shoshone. By this time he realized that he would not be able to fulfill his obligation to return east by October. He wrote a lengthy letter to Macomb summarizing some of his findings and requesting more time, specifically in order to survey the Columbia and parts of the Southwest before his return.
He was made famous during his lifetime by an account of his explorations in the west, written by Washington Irving.
July-August - Cholera epidemic in New York City
Cholera is a water-borne disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is typically ingested by drinking contaminated water, or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shellfish. This phenomenon was first described in a scientific manner by the Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta in Colóquios dos Simples e Drogas da India (1563). Europe witnessed several epidemics in the 19th century, but since then the disease is mostly seen in developing countries, due to poor water infrastructure.
Recent epidemiologic research suggests that a person's susceptibility to cholera (and other diarrheas) is affected by their blood type. Those with type O blood are the most susceptible . Those with type AB are the most resistant, virtually immune. Between these two extremes are the A and B blood types, with type A being more resistant than type B .
About one million V. cholerae bacteria must be ingested to cause cholera in normally healthy adults, although increased susceptibility may be observed in those with a weakened immune system, individuals with decreased gastric acidity (as from the use of antacids), or those who are malnourished.
Symptoms include those of general GI tract upset, including profuse diarrhea. Symptoms are caused by the enterotoxins that V. cholerae produces. The main enterotoxin, known as cholera toxin, interacts with G proteins and cyclic AMP in the intestinal lining to open ion channels. As ions flow into the intestinal lumen, water follows due to osmosis.
Although cholera can be life-threatening, it is easily prevented. In the United States and Western Europe, because of advanced water and sanitation systems, cholera is not a major threat. The last major outbreak of cholera in the United States was in 1911. However, everyone, especially travellers, should be aware of how the disease is transmitted and what can be done to prevent it.
Simple sanitation is usually sufficient to stop an epidemic. There are several points along the transmission path at which the spread may be halted:
Sickbed: Proper disposal and treatment of waste produced by cholera victims.
Sewage: Treatment of general sewage before it enters the waterways.
Sources: Warnings about cholera contamination posted around contaminated water sources.
Sterilization: Boiling, filtering, and chlorination of water before use.
Filtration and boiling is by far the most effective means of halting transmission. Cloth filters, though very basic, have greatly reduced the occurrence of cholera when used in poor villages in Bangladesh that rely on untreated surface water.
In general, education and sanitation are the limiting factors in prevention of cholera epidemics.
Nurses encouraging this patient to drink an Oral Rehydration Solution to improve dehydration he acquired from cholera.
Courtesy:Centers for Disease Control and PreventionTreatment typically consists of aggressive rehydration and replacement of electrolytes, since the death rate is generally high due to the serious dehydration caused by the illness.
Tetracycline antibiotics may have a role in reducing the duration and severity of cholera, although drug-resistance is occurring, and their effects on overall mortality is questioned. Other antibiotics that have been used include ciprofloxacin and azithromycin.
October 8 - Washington Irving and Henry Leavitt Ellsworth arrive at Fort Gibson, Indian Territory (later Fort Gibson, Oklahoma) in the late morning hours. They left the fort on October 10, with a small company of Rangers who escorted them to the camp of Captain Jesse Bean who was waiting for them near the Arkansas River. Thus began one of the first steps in the United States effort to remove the Indians from their homes on the east coast in what would become known as the "Trail of Tears" some six years later.
Washington Irving (April 3, 1783–November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. He is perhaps best known for his short stories, his most famous being “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip van Winkle” (both appearing in The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon), but he was a prolific writer of essays, biographies, and other forms as well. He and James Fenimore Cooper were the first American writers to earn acclaim in Europe, and Irving is said to have mentored authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe. Irving was born in Manhattan. A lawyer, he was a member of the American diplomatic staff in Britain and in Spain. He spoke fluent Spanish, which served him well in his writings on that country, and he could read several other languages, including German and Dutch. He was a prolific essayist who wrote widely respected biographies of George Washington, Muhammad, and others, and he wrote a number of books on 15th century Spain dealing with subjects such as Columbus, the Moors, and the Alhambra. While in Europe as a young man, Irving dabbled in the theatre and even served as manager of the famed Globe for a period of time.
Irving traveled on the Western frontier in the 1830s and recorded his glimpses of western tribes in A Tour on the Prairies (1835). He was noted for speaking against the mishandling of relations with the Native American tribes by Europeans and Americans:
It has been the lot of the unfortunate aborigines of America, in the early periods of colonization, to be doubly wronged by the white men. They have been dispossessed of their hereditary possessions by mercenary and frequently wanton warfare, and their characters have been traduced by bigoted and interested writers.
Irving is also the author of The Adventures of Captain Bonneville and Astoria and used firsthand accounts of these American west journeys, although most readers continue to believe they are "embellished" history.
In the 1840s, he returned to Europe as the American ambassador to Spain.
Irving’s famous home Sunnyside in Tarrytown, New York.He lived in his famous home of Sunnyside, which is still standing just south of the Tappan Zee Bridge in Tarrytown, New York. The original house and the surrounding property were once owned by 18th-century colonialist Wolfert Acker, about whom Irving wrote his sketch “Wolfert’s Roost” (the name of the house).
Irving’s name appears across the country. The village of Irvington, New York, and the town of Irvington, New Jersey, were named after the author, and also, it is believed, the city of Irving, Texas. Both Washington Street and Irving Street in Birmingham, Alabama, also bear the author’s name. His book Bracebridge Hall was the inspiration for the naming of the town of Bracebridge, Ontario. In addition, a library in Los Angeles, California, is named in his honor. Irving Avenue in Port Chester, N.Y., is named after him, as is a condominium townhouse community along this road called Washington Mews, which was built during the 1980s.
In Spain, the room at which he stayed in the Alhambra is labelled and referred to as his room and there is a hotel named for him just outside the Alhambra.
The Trail of Tears refers to the forced relocation in 1838 of the Cherokee Native American tribe to the Western United States, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees. In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi—"the Trail Where We Cried." The Cherokees were not the only Native Americans forced to emigrate during this; the phrase "Trail of Tears" is sometimes used to refer to similar events endured by other Indian peoples, especially among the "Five Civilized Tribes," which consisted of The Seminole, Creek, Chickisaw, Choctaw, and Cherokee Indians. The phrase may have originated as a description of the earlier emigration of the Choctaw nation.
The Cherokee Trail of Tears resulted from the enforcement of the Treaty of New Echota, an agreement signed under the provisions of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which exchanged Native American land in the east for lands west of the Mississippi River. In December 1835, the U.S. sought out a minority to effect a treaty at New Echota, Georgia. Only 300 to 500 Cherokees were there; none were elected officials of the Cherokee Nation. Twenty unelected Cherokee men signed the treaty, ceding all Cherokee territory east of the Mississippi to the U.S., in exchange for $5 million and new homelands in Indian Territory.
More than 15,000 Cherokees protested the treaty. Yet, on May 23, 1836, the Treaty of New Echota was ratified by the U.S. Senate--by just one vote.
The treaty was enforced by President Andrew Jackson, who sent federal troops to round up about 17,000 Cherokees in camps before being sent to the West. Most of the deaths occurred from disease in these camps. After the initial roundup, the U.S. military played a limited role in the journey itself, with the Cherokee Nation taking over supervision of most of the emigration.
The rapidly expanding population of the United States early in the 19th century created tensions with American Indian tribes located within the borders of the various states. While state governments did not want independent Indian enclaves within state boundaries, Indian tribes did not want to relocate or to give up their distinct identities.
With the Deed of Articles and Mutual Cession, the state of Georgia relinquished to the national government its western land claims (which became the states of Alabama and Mississippi). In exchange, the national government promised to eventually conduct treaties to relocate those Indian tribes living within Georgia, thus giving Georgia control of all land within its borders.
However, the Cherokees, whose ancestral tribal lands overlapped the boundaries of Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Alabama, declined to move. They established a capital in 1825 at New Echota (near present-day Calhoun, Georgia). Furthermore, led by principal Chief John Ross and Major Ridge, the speaker of the Cherokee National Council, the Cherokees adopted a written constitution on 26 July 1827, declaring the Cherokee Nation to be a sovereign and independent nation.
November - Andrew Jackson defeats Henry Clay in the U.S. presidential election
December - Skull and Bones secret society of Yale University established.
The group was founded in 1832 by Phi Beta Kappa pledges William Huntington Russell and Alphonso Taft.  The first Skull and Bones class, or "cohort," was the very next year, 1832-33. The society was all male until 1992.
Traditionally, the Yale Daily News published the names of newly "tapped" members of all major secret societies at Yale, but this practice was abandoned during the student rebellion of the sixties. It has since been reinstated informally by the campus tabloid The Rumpus. Hence, although the society's current membership rosters and activities are not officially disclosed, the membership is in fact a matter of knowledge among the incoming and outgoing Yale senior class, university administration, active alumni from other societies, and underclassmen. This may be said of the other societies, as well, particularly Scroll and Key and Wolf's Head.
The society inducts only rising seniors during the late junior year prior to their graduation.
By reputation, "Boners" tapped the current football and heavyweight rowing captains as well as notables from the Yale Daily News and Yale Lit before the 1970s. However, the group's decision, after much dispute, to admit women eventually diversified the membership. Numerous undergraduate constituencies are better represented among the recently-tapped membership compared to the cohorts, or delegations, that included the 27th, 41st and 43rd Presidents of the United States.
The Skull and Bones tomb.- Beginning in 1833, one of the responsibilities of the cohort of fifteen seniors is to select fifteen new junior members to replace them, which is called being "tapped" for the society. Tapped members meet in the Bones "Tomb" on certain evenings of each week for the duration of their senior year. - - According to "dissident" Bones members interviewed by Alexandra Robbins for her book Secrets of The Tomb [p. 5], members dine off a set of Adolf Hitler's silverware while in the tomb, consuming expensive gourmet meals with each other over the span of the year. Members are given new code names. The members call themselves "Knights," and simultaneously call everyone else in the world at large "barbarians." Another dissociation is that clocks in the Bones "tomb" run intentionally five minutes ahead of the rest of the world, to give the members an ongoing sense that the Bonesmen's space is a totally separate world — and a world just a bit ahead of the curve of the rest of the "barbarians" outside. 
Main article: List of Skull and Bones members
Skull and Bones 1947, with George H.W. Bush just left of clockMany people believe that the membership of Skull and Bones had been totally secret. However the membership for each year is held in the Yale University archives. The membership rosters cover the years 1833-1985, with some additional years. The top repetitive families in Skull and Bones are also known because in 1985 an anonymous source leaked rosters to a private researcher, Antony C. Sutton who wrote a book on the group titled America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones. This leaked 1985 data was kept privately for over 15 years, as Sutton feared that the photocopied pages could somehow identify the member who leaked it. The information was finally reformatted as an appendix in the book Fleshing out Skull and Bones, a compilation edited by Kris Millegan, published in 2003.
Many influential figures have been in Bones, and influential families have often had multiple members over successive generations. Bonesmen range from U.S. Presidents such as George H. W. Bush, and William Howard Taft along with Supreme Court Justices, and U.S. business leaders.
Both 2004 Presidential Nominees, Democratic Massachusetts Sentator John Kerry and Republican President George W. Bush, were members of Skull and Bones. They refused to talk about their common membership in Skull and Bones when interviewed on Meet the Press. 
Bush: "It's so secret, we can't talk about it."
Tim Russert: "What does that mean for America?"
Bush refused to answer that question. In another interview, when Kerry was in turn asked what could he reveal about Skull and Bones, Kerry said: "Well not much, because it's a secret... Sorry, I wish there was something I could manifest".
 Numerical symbolism "322"
Skull and Bones pay obeisance to Eulogia, the goddess of eloquence, who took her place in the pantheon upon the death of the orator Demosthenes, in 322 B.C., and who is said to have returned in a kind of Second Coming on the occasion of the society's inception. Today the numerical symbolism number 322, recalling the date of Demosthenes' and Aristotles' (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) death, appears on society stationery. The number has such mystical overtones that in 1967 a graduate student with no ties to Skull and Bones donated $322,000 to the society.
The number 322 has also been a particular favorite of conspiracy-minded hunters for evidence of Skull and Bones's global connections. It was the combination to Averell Harriman's briefcase when he carried classified dispatches between London and Moscow during World War II. Antony C. Sutton claims that 322 doubles as a reminder of the society's mother organization in Germany; the American group, founded in 1832, is the second chapter -- thus 32-2. 
Victor Ashe (1967), Tenn. State House (1968-1975); Tenn. State Senate (1976-1984); Mayor of Knoxville, Tenn. (1988-2003); appointed Ambassador to Poland (2004-Present) by George W. Bush
Roy Leslie Austin (1968), Appointed ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago by George W. Bush
Howard M. Baldridge (1918) - U.S. Representative (R-Nebraska 1931-1933)
Simeon Eben Baldwin (1861), Governor and Chief Justice, State of Connecticut; son of Roger Sherman Baldwin
Jonathan Brewster Bingham (1936), U.S. Representative (D-New York 1965-1983); Council on Foreign Relations
William Bissell, Governor of Illinois (1857-1860); brother of Richard M. Bissell, Jr.)
David Boren (1963), Governor of Oklahoma, U.S. Senator, President of the University of Oklahoma
Augustus Brandegee (1849), Speaker of the Connecticut State Legislature in 1861
Frank Bosworth Brandegee (1885), U.S. Representative (R-Connecticut 1902-1905); U.S. Senator (R-Connecticut 1905-1924)
James L. Buckley (1944), U.S. Senator (R-New York 1971-1977)
McGeorge Bundy (1940), Special Assistant for National Security Affairs; National Security Advisor; Professor of History
William P. Bundy (1939), State Department liaison for the Bay of Pigs invasion
George H. W. Bush (1948), 41st President of the United States; 43rd Vice-President of the United States; son of Prescott Bush; father of George W. Bush
George W. Bush (1968), 43rd President of the United States; Governor of Texas
Prescott Bush (1916), Father of George H.W. Bush, grandfather of George W. Bush
John Chafee (1947), U.S. Senator; Secretary of the Navy and Governor of Rhode Island; father of Lincoln Chafee
John Sherman Cooper (1923), U.S. Senator (R-Kentucky 1946-1949, 1952-73); member of the Warren Commission
Hugh Cunningham (1934), Rhodes Scholar; CIA
F. Trubee Davison (1918), Director of Personnel at the CIA
Endicott Peabody Davison (1948), George H.W. Bush lawyer
Chauncey Depew (1855), U.S. Senator (R-New York 1899-1911)
Richard Dale Drain (1943), CIA; co-authored early paper proposing the Bay of Pigs invasion, "A Program of Covert Action against the Castro Regime"
William Henry Draper III (1950), Chair of United Nations Development Programme and Import-Export Bank of the United States
William Maxwell Evarts (1837), U.S. Secretary of State; Attorney General; Senator; grandson of Roger Sherman
Evan G. Galbraith (1950), Ambassador to France; managing director of Morgan Stanley
William Henry Gleason (1853), Lt. Governor of Florida; founder of Eau Gallie, Florida; lawyer and land speculator
Averell Harriman (1913), U.S. Ambassador and Secretary of Commerce; Governor of New York; Chairman and CEO of the Union Pacific Railroad, Brown Brothers & Harriman, and the Southern Pacific Railroad; wife Pamela Churchill Harriman helped fund Bill Clinton's presidential campaign
H. J. Heinz II (1931), Heir to H. J. Heinz Company; father of H. John Heinz III
William Jorden (1925), U.S. Ambassador to Panama; National Security Council
John Kerry (1966), U.S. Senator (D-Massachusetts 1985-present); Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts 1983-1985; 2004 Democratic Presidential nominee
Charles Edwin Lord (1949), U.S. Comptroller of the Currency
Winston Lord (1959), Chairman of Council on Foreign Relations; Ambassador to China; Assistant U.S. Secretary of State
Robert A. Lovett (1918), Partner of Prescott Bush at Brown Brothers Harriman; Secretary of Defense; "Father of the CIA"
Robert McCallum, Jr (1968), Ambassador to Australia
Lee McClung (1892), Yale Treasurer 1904-1909; U.S. Treasurer 1909-1912
Gifford Pinchot (1889), First Chief of U.S. Forest Service
Dino Pionzio (1950), CIA Deputy Chief of Station during Allende overthrow
Potter Stewart (1936), U.S. Supreme Court Justice
William Howard Taft (1878), 27th President of the United States; Chief Justice of the United States; Secretary of War; son of Alphonso Taft
Robert A. Taft (1910), U.S. Senator (R-Ohio 1939-1953)
Morrison R. Waite (1837), U.S. Supreme Court Justice
Howard Weaver (1945), CIA
Edward Baldwin Whitney (1878), New York Supreme Court Justice
William Collins Whitney (1863), U.S. Secretary of the Navy; New York City financier
December 28 - John C. Calhoun becomes the first Vice President of the United States to resign.
John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a prominent United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century.
Calhoun began his career as a staunch nationalist, favoring war with Britain in 1812 and a vast program of internal improvements afterwards. He reversed course in the 1820s to attack nationalism in favor of States Rights of the sort Thomas Jefferson had propounded in 1798. Although he died a decade before the American Civil War broke out, Calhoun was a major inspiration to the secessionists who created the short-lived Confederate States of America. Nicknamed the "cast-steel man" for his staunch determination to defend the causes in which he believed, Calhoun pushed the theory of nullification, a states' rights theory under which states could declare null and void any federal law they deemed to be unconstitutional. He was an outspoken proponent of the institution of slavery, which he defended as a "positive good" rather than as a necessary evil. His rhetorical defense of slavery was partially responsible for escalating Southern threats of secession in the face of mounting abolitionist sentiment in the North.
Calhoun spent his entire career working for the national government in a variety of high offices. He served as the seventh Vice President of the United States, first under John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) and then under Andrew Jackson (1829-1832), but resigned the Vice Presidency to enter the United States Senate, where he had more power. He served in the United States House of Representatives (1810-1817) and was Secretary of War (1817-1824) under Monroe and Secretary of State (1844-1845) under Tyler. Current Mood: busy